A caregiver’s biggest nightmare when it comes to their ageing loved ones are falls. Their anxiety is rightly so as falls have been associated as the leading cause of both fatal and nonfatal injuries (fractures and head injuries) for people aged more than 65 years. Even if the fall is without a major injury, the concerned elderly would naturally become fearful to be active.
But what causes the fall?
1. Balance and gait: As we age, most of us lose some coordination, flexibility, and balance— primarily through inactivity, making it easier to fall.
2. Vision: In the aging eye, less light reaches the retina—making contrasting edges, tripping hazards, and obstacles harder to see.
3. Medications: Some prescriptions and over-the-counter medications can cause dizziness, dehydration or interactions with each other that can lead to a fall.
4. Environment: Most seniors have lived in their homes for a long time and have never thought about simple modifications that might keep it safer as they age.
5. Chronic conditions: More than 90% of older adults have at least one chronic condition like diabetes, stroke, or arthritis. Often, these increase the risk of falling because they result in lost function, inactivity, depression, pain, or multiple medications.
The good news is most falls can be prevented by reducing their risk of falling. Every little thing brings a lot of relief to your loved ones to stay independent, happy and healthy as long as possible. Here are 6 simple steps that you can take today to help your older loved one to reduce their risk of a fall.
6 Steps to Reducing Falls
1. Enlist their support in taking simple steps to stay safe.
Ask your older loved one if they’re concerned about falling. Many older adults recognize that falling is a risk, but they believe it won’t happen to them or they won’t get hurt—even if they’ve already fallen in the past. If they’re concerned about falling, dizziness, or balance, it would then be best to discuss it with their health care provider who can assess their risk and suggest the next appropriate step that could help.
2. Discuss their current health conditions.
Find out if your older loved one is experiencing any problems with managing their own health. Are they having trouble remembering to take their medications—or are they experiencing side effects? Is it getting more difficult for them to do things they used to do easily? Do take note on their concerns. Encourage them to speak openly with their health care provider about all of their concerns.
3. Ask about their last eye checkup.
If your older loved one wears glasses, make sure they have a current prescription and they’re using the glasses as advised by their eye doctor. Remember that using tint-changing lenses can be hazardous when going from bright sun into darkened buildings and homes. A simple strategy is to change glasses upon entry or stop until their lenses adjust.Bifocals also can be problematic on stairs, so it’s important to be cautious. For those already struggling with low vision, consult with a low-vision specialist for ways to make the most of their eyesight.
4. Do they need a physical therapist?
Notice if they’re holding onto walls, furniture, or someone else when walking or if they appear to have difficulty walking or arising from a chair.These are all signs that it might be time to see a physical therapist. A trained physical therapist can help your older loved one improve their balance, strength, and gait through exercise. They might also suggest a cane or walker—and provide guidance on how to use these aids. Make sure to follow their advice. Poorly fit aids actually can increase the risk of falling.
5. Talk about their medications.
If your older loved one is having a hard time keeping track of medicines or is experiencing side effects, encourage them to discuss their concerns with their doctor and pharmacist. Suggest that they have their medications reviewed each time they get a new prescription.Also, beware of non-prescription medications that contain sleep aids—including painkillers with “PM” in their names. These can lead to balance issues and dizziness. If your older loved one is having sleeping problems, encourage them to talk to their doctor or pharmacist about safer alternatives.
6. Do a walk-through safety assessment of their/ your home home.
There are many simple and inexpensive ways to make a home safer. Here are some examples:
a. Lighting: Increase lighting throughout the house, especially at the top and bottom of stairs. Ensure that lighting is readily available when getting up in the middle of the night.
b. Stairs: Make sure there are two secure rails on all stairs.
c. Bathrooms: Install grab bars in the tub/shower and near the toilet. Make sure they’re installed where your older loved one would actually use them. For even greater safety, consider using a shower chair and hand-held shower.
Please refer to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) which offers a home assessment checklist in multiple languages, in order to make your home safer.
Remember, you have the power to reduce the risk and protect your ageing loved ones from a serious fall.
Stay safe by following these tips!